Vitamins


Vitamin A

Synthesis of photoreceptors for vision; health of skin and bones; antioxidant. Deficit causes night blindness.


Vitamin B1 (Thiamine), and Vitamin B7 (Biotin)

Constituents of coenzymes required for carbohydrate metabolism. Deficiency of Vit. B1 causes Beriberi.


Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin), Vitamin B3 (Niacin), and Vitamin B5 (Pantothenic acid)

Constituents of coenzymes required for energy metabolism. Deficiency of Vit. B3 causes Pellagra.


Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)

Amino acid metabolism.


Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin), and Vitamin B9 (Folic acid)

Red blood cell formation; DNA synthesis. Deficiency causes Anemia.


Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)

Collagen formation; wound healing; enhances the immune system; antioxidant. Deficiency causes Scurvy.


Vitamin D

Absorption of calcium for health of bones and teeth. Deficiency causes Rickets.


Vitamin E

Wound healing; strengthening of cell membranes; antioxidant.


Vitamin K

Blood clotting. Deficiency causes excessive bleeding.




Minerals


Calcium (Ca)

Strong bones and teeth; nerve conduction; muscle contraction.


Phosphorus (P)

Strong bones and teeth.


Sodium (Na), and Potassium (K)

Nerve conduction; neuromuscular function.


Chlorine (Cl)

Helps maintain water and pH balance; major extracellular anion.


Iron (Fe), and Copper (Cu)

Hemoglobin synthesis.


Iodine (I)

Thyroid hormone synthesis. Deficiency causes Goiter.


Magnesium (Mg)

Protein synthesis; functioning of muscles and nerves.


Zinc (Zn)

Wound healing; tissue growth.