Latin and Greek Prefixes, Root Words, and Suffixes 1, 2. 3. 4



a-                                not, without, less

ab-, abs-                    away from

abdomino                    abdomen

-able                           able to, capable of

-ac                              referring to, pertaining to

acetabulo-                   small cup

acr-, acro-                 extremity, tip, peak

acou-                          hearing

ad-                              to, toward, near

aden-, adeno-             gland

adip-, adipo-               fat, fatty

adren-                         toward the kidney

aero-                           air, oxygen

af-                               toward

ag-                              together

agon-                          contest, trial

-al                               referring to, pertaining to

ala-                             wing

alb-, albi-                   white

alg-, algi-                   pain

-algia                          painful condition

aliment-                      nourish

allel-                           of one another

allo-                            other, different

alveol-                         cavity

ambi-, ambo-             on all sides, around

amphi-                        on both sides, of both kinds

amyl-, amylo-             starch

an-                             not, without, less

-an                              pertaining to

ana-                            up, apart

anastomos-                 come together

andro-                         man, masculine

aneurysm                    a widening

angi-                           vessel

angin-                         choked

ant-, anti-                   against, opposite

-ant                             having characteristic of

ante-                           before, in front

antero-                       forward

anthr-                          joint

anti-                           against

aort-                            great artery

ap-, api-                     extremity, tip

apo-                           from, off, away, above

append-                       hang to

-apsi                            juncture

aqua-, aque-              water

arbor                          tree

areola-                        open space

arrect-                         upright

arteria                         artery

arthr-, arthro-            joint

artic-                           joint, speech

-ary                             connected with, relating to

-ase                             enzyme

-asia, -asis                 condition of

ast-, astro-                star

-asthen                        weakness

-ata, -ate                   possessing

athero-                       fat

-ation                          process, condition

atri-                            vestibule

atrio-                          entryway

audit-                          hearing

auri-                           ear

auscult-                       listen

aut-, auto-                  self

ax-, axi-, axo-           axis, axle

azot-                            nitrogen

azyg-                           unpaired


baro-                           pressure

bas-                             base, foundation

bene-                          good, well

bi-, bis-                      two, double

bili-                             bile

bio-                             life

bis-                              two

blast-, blasto-             precursor, bud, producer

blephar-                      eyelid

brachi-                        arm

brady-                         slow

brev-                           short

broncho-                     bronchus, windpipe

-bryo                           swollen

bucca-, bucco-           cheek

burs-                          sac, purse


calc-                           calcium, stone

callo-                         thick

calor-                          heat

calv-, calvari-           bald, skull

calyx                           cup, vessel

capill-                         hair

capit-, caput-             head

capni-                        carbon dioxide, smoke

carcin-                        cancer

cardi-, cardio-           heart

carneo-                       flesh

carot-                          carrot, stupor

carpo-                        wrist

case-                          cheese

cata-                           down

caud-                          tail

cec-                             blind

-cel                              little

cele-, celi-                  belly, abdomen

-centesis                      puncture

centri-                        center, middle

cephal-                        head

cerebro-                      brain

cervi-, cervix              neck, narrow part

chiasm-                       crossing

choano-                      funnel

chole-                          bile, gall

cholecyst                     gallbladder

chondr-                       cartilage

chrom-                        colored

chrono-                      time

-cide                            destroy, kill

cili-                             small hair

-cipit                           head

circ-, circum-             around

cirrh-                          yellow

cis-                              on the same side, cut

cisterna                       reservoir

-clast                           break down

clavic-                         hammer, club, key

-cle                              little

cleido-                        clavicle

cnemo-                       lower leg

co-                              with, together

coccy-                         cuckoo

cochlea                       snail shell

coel-                            hollow

collo-                         glue, hill

colo-                           colon

colp-, colpo-              vagina

com-, con-                  with, together

commis-                      united

concha                        shell

contra-                        against, opposite

corn-, corni-              horn

cor-, coron-               heart

coron-                         crown

corp-                           body

cort-                            bark

cost-, costo-               rib

coxa-                          hip

crani-                          skull, helmet

cribri-                        sieve, strainer

-crine                          separate

crino-                         separate, secrete

crista-                        crest

crito-                          to separate

cruci-                         cross

crypt-                          hidden

-cule, -culus             small

cune-                          wedge

cutane-, cuti-            skin

cusp-                           pointed

cuta-, cutic-               skin

cyan-                           blue

cyst-, cysto-                sac, bladder

cyt-, cyto-, -cyte        cell


de-                              away from, down, without

decid-                          falling off

delta                            triangular

demi-                          half

den-, dent-                 tooth

dendr-                         tree, branch

derm-, dermato-         skin

desmo-                        band, ligament

di-                               two, double

dia-                             across, through, separate

dialys-                         separate, break apart

diastol-                       stand apart

diplo-                          two, double

-dips                            thirst, dry

dis-                              apart, opposite, absence

diure-                          urinate

dors-                           the back

duc-, duct                   to lead, to carry

duoden                        twelve, duodenum

dura                            hard, tough

dys-                             bad, abnormal, painful


e-                               out

-eal                             pertaining to

ec-, ecto-                    away from, outside, external

-ectasia, -ectasis         dilation, expansion

-ectomy                       cutting out

ectop-                          displaced

edem-                          swelling

ef-                               away, out of

ejac-                            to shoot forth

-el, -elle                     small

electro-                      electricity

embol-                        wedge, obstruction

-emia                          condition of blood

em-                              in, inside, within

emesi-, emeti-           vomiting

-emia                          blood condition

en-                             in, into, within

enceph-                       brain

enchymo-                   poured in

end-, endo-                 within, into, inner

enter-, entero-            gut, intestine

epi-                             upon, on, above

equi-                           equal

ergo-                           work, energy, action

eryth-, erythro-         red

-esis                            condition of

eso-                             within

esophag-                     esophagus

-esthesia                     sensation, feeling

eu-                              true, good, normal

excret-                         separate

ex-, exo-                     outside, exterior

extra-                          outside, beyond

extrins-                       from the outside


fasci-, fascia-             bundle, band

facili-                          easy

fasci-                           band, bundle

fenestr-                       window

-fer, -ferent                carry

fer-                             to carry

ferri-, ferro-               iron

fibro-                          fiber

fili-                             thread

flagell-                        whip

flat-                             blow, blown

foli-                            leaf

folli-                            bag, bellows

fontan-                        fountain

foram-                         opening

fore-                            before, in front of

-form, -forma             shape

foss-                            ditch

fove-                           pit, depression

-fuge                           driving out

funiculo-                    little rope, cord

fusi-                            spindle, pour out


gam-, gamet-             marriage, union

gangli-                        swelling, knot

gastr-, gastro-            belly, stomach

gen-                            birth, produce

-gen                            precursor of, initiate

-genesis, -genic          producing, formation

genio-                        chin

germi-                        sprout, grow, microbe

gero-, geront-            old age

gest-                            to bear, carry, pregnancy

gingiv-                        gums

glauc-                         gray

-glea, -glia                 glue

globu-                        ball, sphere

glom-                          ball

gloss-, glosso-            tongue

gluco-                         sugar

glute-                          buttock

glyco-                          sugar 

gnost-                          knowing

gompho-                     nail

gon-, gono-                seed, generation, corner

gradi-                         walk, step

-gram                          recording of

-graph                         recording instrument

-graphy                       recording process

gravi-                         severe, heavy

-gument                       body covering

gust-                            taste

gyn-, gynec-               woman, female

gyro-                          turn, twist


hallu-                         great toe

hapt-                           fasten, grasp

hema-, hemato-          blood

hemi-                          half

-hemia                         blood condition

hepar-, hepat-            liver

heter-, hetero-            different, other

hiat-                            gap

hippo-                         horse

hirsut-                         hairy

hist-, histo-                 tissue

holo-                           whole

homeo-                       constant, unchanging

homo-                        same, alike

hormon-                      to excite

humor-                        a fluid

hyal-                           clear, glassy

hydr-, hydro-             water

hygro-                         moisture

hyper-                         excessive, above, over

hypno-                         sleep

hypo-                          under, below, deficient

-hypophysis                 undergrowth

hyster-, hystero-         uterus, womb

-ia                               condition, state

-iatrics                        medical specialty

-ian                             pertaining to

-iasis                           condition or state

-ic                               pertaining to

-ician                          person associated with

-icle, -icul                  small

-ics                              science of

ile-                              intestine

ilia-                            flank, loin

-illa, -illus                  little

im-, in-                       in, within, not

-in                               protein

infra-                          below, beneath

infundibulum              funnel

ino-                            fiber

insulo-                        island

inte                              whole

intego                          to cover

inter-                           between, among

intercal-                      insert

intra-                          within, inside

iono-                          ion

ipsi-                            same

ischi-                           hip

-ism                             condition, state, belief

iso-                              equal, same

-issimus                       most, greatest

-ite                              little

-itis                             inflammation


jug-                            to join

jugul-                          throat

juxta-                          near, close to, next to


kali-                            potassium

kera-                           horn

karyo-                         kernel, nucleus

kilo-                            thousand

kin-, kines-                 motion, action


labi-, labri-                lip

lacera-                       torn, cut

lacri-                           tears

lact-                            milk

lacun-                         space, cavity, lake

lamell-                        small plate

lamina                        layer, sheet

laryngo-                      larynx

lat-                              wide

laten-                          hidden

later-                           side

lati-                            broad

laparo-                        loin

-lemm                          sheath, husk

lenti-                          lens

-let                              small

leuko-                          white

leva-                            to raise, elevate

ligo-                           to bind

line-                           line

lingu-                          tongue

lip-, lipo-                    lipid, fatty

lith-                             stone

-logy                           study of

luci-                            clear

lucid-                         light, clear

lumb-                          loin, lower back

lumen                          light

lun-                            moon, crescent

lut-                              yellow

lymph                          water

-lysis                           loosening, breaking down

lyso-, lyto-                 split apart, break down


macro-                        large, long

macul-, macula          spot

magn-                         large

mal-, malign-             bad, abnormal

-malacia                     softening

malle-                        hammer

mamm-                        breast

-mania                        obsession, compulsion

mano-                        hand

manubri-                    handle

mast-                           breast

mater                          mother

meat-                          passage

medi-                          middle

medull-                       marrow

mega-, megalo-          large

-megaly                       enlarged

meio-                          less

melan-                        black

men-, menstru-           month

meningo-                     membrane

mento-                        chin

mer-, mero-                a part

-mers                          parts

meso-                          in the middle

meta-                          after, behind, beyond

metabol-                    change

-meter                         measuring device

metri-                         length, measure

metro-                         uterus

micro-                         small

mictur-                        urinate

mito-                           thread, filament

mnem-                         memory

mono-                         one, single

morpho-                      form

multi-                          many

mur-                            wall

muta-                          change

myelo-                         marrow, spinal cord

myo-, mysi-                muscle


nano-                          dwarf

narco-                         numbness

naso-                           nose

-nata                           birth

natri-                          sodium

necro-                         dead, corpse

neo-                            new

nephro-                       kidney

neuro-                         nerve

nitro-                          nitrogen

noci-                           harmful

noct-                           night

nom-                           name

-nom                           govern

non-                            not

noto-                           back

nucleo-                       nucleus, kernel

nutri-                          feed, nourish


ob-                              before, against

ocul-, oculo-              eye

odont-, odonto-          tooth

-odyn                          pain

-oid                             like, resembling

-ole                            small

olfact-                         smell

oligo-                          few

-oma                          tumor, mass

omo-                          shoulder

onco-                          a mass, tumor

onych-                        nail, claw

oo-                              egg

op-                             vision

-opathy                       disease of

ophthalm-                   eye

-opsy                          viewing, to see

or-                               mouth

orb-, orbi-                  circular

orchi-, orchido           testis

org-                             living

ortho-                          straight, normal

-oma                           tumor

-opia                           defect of the eye

ortho-                          straight, correct, direct

-orrhaphy                   surgical repair

-ory                             referring to

os-                               mouth

-ose                            sugar, full of

-osis                            process, condition, disease

osmo-                          smell, push

osseo-, osteo-             bone

-ostomy                       create an opening

ot-, oto-                      ear

-otomy                        surgical incision

-ous                            full of, like, pertaining to

ov-, ovi-                     egg

ovari-, ovario-          ovary

oxy-                             oxygen


palli-                          pale

palpebr-                      eyelid

pan-                            all, universal

panni-                        cloth, rag

papill-                         nipple

par-                            birth

para-                           near, beside, next to

parieto-                      wall

path-, patho-              disease, feeling

-pathy                         disease

pect-, pectus               chest, breast, comblike

ped-, pedi-                 foot, child

pelv-                            basin

peni-                           tail

-penia                         deficiency

penna-                         feather

pent-                           five

pep-, peps-                 digest

pept-                           digest

per-, permea-             through

peri-                            around

perine-                        perineum

perone-                      fibula

phag-                          eat

-phage                         ingesting

pharyngo-                   pharynx

-phasia                        speech

pheno-                         show, appear

philo-, -philic             loving, attracted to

phleb-, phlebo-          vein

phobo-, -phobic         fearing, repelled by

phor-                          to carry, bear

photo-                         light

-phragm                      partition

phren-                         diaphragm

-phylax                        guard, preserve

physio-                       nature, natural cause

-physis                       growth

pia                              tender, delicate

pilo-, pili                    hair

pin-, pino-                  drink

planto-                       sole of foot

plasi-                          growth

-plasm                         form, shape

plasti-                        form

-plasty                         reconstruction of a part

platy-                          flat, broad

-plegia                        paralysis

pleur-                          side, rib

plex-, plexus               net, network

-pnea                          breath, breathing

pneumo-                      air, breath, lung

pod-                            foot

-poies                          forming, making

poly-                           many, multiple

post-                            after, behind

pre-                             before, ahead of

primi-                         first

pro-                            before, first, promote

proct-, procto-           rectum, anus

pron-                           bent forward

propri-                        one's own

proteo-                        protein

proto-                          first, highest

pseudo-                       false

psycho-, psyche         mind

ptero-, pterygo-         wing

ptos-                            fall

-ptosis                         falling, sagging

pub-                            of the pubis

pulmo-                        lung

puncto-                      point

pyelo-                          renal pelvis

pyo-                            pus

pyro-                           fire, fever


quad-, quadri-           four

quater-                       fourth


radiat-                        radiating

radio-                          radiation

rami-                          branch

re-                               back, again

rect-, recto-                 straight, rectum

ren-, reno-                 kidney

reti-, retin                  net, network

retinac-                      retainer, bracelet

retro-                          backward, behind

rheum-                        watery flow, change, flux

-rhexis                         rupture

rhin-, rhino-               nose

rhombo-                     rhombus

-rrhage                       abnormal discharge

-rrhea                         flow, discharge

rubo-, rubro-            red

ruga-, rugo-               fold, wrinkle


sacculo-                     little sac

sacr-, sacro-              sacrum

sagitt-                         arrow

salpingo-                     a tube

salta-                          leap

sanguin-                      blood

sarco-                         flesh, muscle

saphen-                       visible, clear

scala-                         staircase

scler-, sclero-             hard, tough

-scope                         instrument

scopo-                        see

-scopy                         to examine visually

seb-                             grease

secto-                         cut

semen                          seed, sperm

semi-                           half

sens-                           feeling

sep-                             rotten, toxic

sepsi-, septi-               infection

septum                        fence

sero-                           serum

serrat-                         saw

sex-                             six

sin-, sino-                   a hollow

-sis                             process

skeleto-                       skeleton

sole-                           sole of foot, sandal

soma-, somato-          body

-some                          body

somn-                          sleep

-sorb                           suck in

sphin-                          squeeze

spheno-                      wedge

spiro-                         breathing

splanchn-                    viscera, organ

spleno-                       spleen, bandage

spondyl-                      vertebra

squam-                        scale, flat

-stalsis                        compression

stasi-, stati-               put, remain, stay the same

-stasis                         arrest, fixation

sten-, steno-               narrow

ster-, stereo-             solid, three-dimensional

sterno-                       chest, breast

-stitia                          come to stand

-stomy                         form an artificial opening

strat-                           layer

stria-                           stripe, streak, furrow

stroma                        spread out

sub-                             below, beneath, under

sucr-                           sweet

sudor-                         sweat

sulc-                           furrow, groove

super-, supra-            above, beyond, excess

sura-                          calf of leg

sym-, syn-                  together, with

synerg-                        work together

systol-                         contraction


tachy-                          rapid, fast

tact-                            touch

tarsi-                          ankle

tecto-                          roof, cover

-tegm                          cover

tegument-                    covering, skin

telo-                            last, end

templ-, tempo-           time

tens-                            stretched

terti-                            third

tetan-                          rigid, tense

theli-                          nipple, female, tender

therm-                         heat

thorac-, thoraco-        thorax

thromb-                       clot

thyr-, thyro-               shield, thyroid gland

-tion                           process

tissu-                           woven

toci-                           birth

tomo-                        cut, segment

-tomy                          cutting into

tono-                           force, tension

topo-                          place, position

tox-                             poison

trab-                            beam, plate

trache-, tracheo-        trachea

trans-                          across, through

trapez-                        table, trapezoid

tri-                              three

tricho-                        hair

-tripsy                         crushing

trocho-                       pulley, wheel

trop-                            change, to turn

troph-                         food, nourishment, growth

-trophy                        nutrition

-trud                            thrust

tuber-                          swelling

tunic-                          coat, covering

-ty                               condition of, state

tympan-                       drum


-ul                              small

ultra-                          excess, beyond

un-                              not, removal

-uncle, -unculus         small

uni-                           one

uretero-                       ureter

urethr-, urethro         urethra

uri-, -uria                   urine

uro-                             urinary

uter-, utero-               uterus, womb

utriculo-                     little bag


vacc-                           cow

vagin-, vagino-          sheath, vagina

vago-, vagus              wanderer

valen-                          strength

vas-, vaso-                 vessel, duct

vena-                           vein

ventr-, venter             abdomen, belly

vent-                            the wind

vermi-                        worm

vert-                            turn

vertebro-                    spine

vesico-                       bladder, blister

vestibul-                      a porch

vibr-                            shake, quiver

villo-, villus                hair, hairy

viscero-, viscera        organ

viscos-                         sticky

vita-                            life

vitre-                           glassy

viv-                              live

vulv-, vulvo-               a covering, vulva


zygo-                          union, join, mate

-zyme                          ferment


References:


(1) Tortora, Gerard J. and Derrickson, Bryan H., 2006, Principles of Anatomy and Physiology, 11th Edition, Wiley Publ.


(2) Marieb, Elaine N. and Hoehn, Katja, 2007, Human Anatomy and Physiology, 7th Edition, Benjamin Cummings Publ.


(3) Saladin, Kenneth S., 2007, Anatomy & Physiology: The Unity of Form and Function, 4th Edition, McGraw-Hill Publ.


(4) Stedman’s Medical Dictionary, 28th Edition, 2007, Lippincott, Williams & Wilkins Publ.